Bill of rights

Human Rights Charter

Article 1

1. Egypt is a nation of diverse religions, sects, races, and cultures. This unique diversity has shaped the conscience and identity of Egyptians, and the creative interaction throughout history between these components, as well as between the Pharaonic, Nubian, Coptic, and Arab Islamic civilizations, is a source of pride and respect for all Egyptians and a cornerstone of their sacred national unity. The singular Egyptian identity is multi-dimensional, composed of various cultural and civilizational roots, and this diversity is a crucial source of richness and uniqueness in the Egyptian persona. Historically and realistically, it cannot be reduced to a single aspect without destroying the national unity of Egyptians or compromising the country’s independence.

2. The constitution guarantees the diversity of legislative sources that reflect the diverse origins of the Egyptian identity and contribute to strengthening national unity. It does not impose legislation that regulates the private lives of citizens in a way that contradicts their beliefs or regulates the public and private spheres in a manner that contradicts human rights guarantees and public freedoms.

3. Every Egyptian has the right to enjoy cultural rights, which also entails the preservation of the national heritage and the diverse ethnic, religious, and geographical cultures throughout the history of Egypt.

Article 2

1. Egypt is an independent, free, and democratic state, based on several principles:

a) Popular sovereignty as the source of all authorities.

b) Respect for civil, political, economic, social, cultural, and human rights in accordance with international conventions and minimum international law standards. The constitution details these rights without diminishing them, and the legislator does not have the right to diminish or restrict these rights without a justifiable reason allowed by international conventions. Human rights values form a key pillar of Egyptian foreign policy.

c) Separation of the three powers – executive, legislative, and judicial – and the balance between them, as well as their mutual oversight.

d) Rule of law and equality of all citizens before the law.

e) The constitution guarantees a system that ensures the dignity and social justice of Egyptians.

2. The philosophy of the democratic system aims to:

a) Enhance and protect the values of pluralism as an inherent human nature and an essential human value. Pluralism is the foundation for unleashing the potential of Egyptians in building and advancing their nation in all fields. This plurality does not allow any majority to oppress any minority, whether it is intellectual, religious, sectarian, ethnic, or artistic, while banning all forms of incitement to religious and racial hatred leading to violence.

b) Embrace and encourage all forms and methods created or developed by Egyptians that enhance a democratic model based on popular participation and accountability, starting from student councils in schools to a system of local governance that provides an effective model of self-administration and helps sharpen the abilities of Egyptians for development and progress. This requires all levels to be subject to elections. Addressing the issue of freedom and mechanisms of the democratic system is also a fundamental pillar for the advancement and progress of the Egyptian nation in all fields, including eradicating poverty and illiteracy.

3. The people exercise their sovereignty through a representative system based on regular general elections, and the elected parliamentary council assumes the tasks of legislation and oversight over the executive authority.

4. Ensuring the freedom to establish and manage political parties, professional associations, labor unions, non-governmental organizations, and all other forms of civil society organizations, as long as the objectives and programs of these entities do not contradict the fundamental rights of Egyptians outlined in this document, and as long as they operate peacefully. Political parties, professional associations, labor unions, and non-governmental organizations have the right to provide advice to various judicial bodies in cases related to their jurisdiction.

5. Complete independence of the judicial power, including the Prosecutor General. Military justice is limited to military crimes committed by members of the armed forces.

6. Ensuring the independence of religious institutions, which should work to enhance their spiritual role in nurturing the conscience of Egyptians, promoting religious values, and prohibiting any partisan activity within their affiliations.

7. The democratic system enforces the principle of accountability for all officials holding executive and legislative public positions, before the people, parliamentary bodies, and judicial institutions, regarding all their actions during their terms in office. They are also prohibited from engaging in any kind of private work during their tenure.

Article 3

The police are a civil institution, non-military, tasked with protecting internal security and public order. The Ministry of Interior is subject to the oversight of elected parliamentary bodies, and its leadership is a political figure.

Article 4

The state alone has the authority to establish the armed forces, and no entity or group is permitted, under any justification, to create military or quasi-military formations. The armed forces are responsible for defending the independence and security of the nation against military threats. The President of the Republic is the supreme commander of the armed forces, and The President of the Republic is the leader of Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, and the Ministry of Defense is subject to the oversight of elected parliamentary bodies.

Article 5

1- All Egyptians, women and men, are entitled to enjoy the rights and guarantees contained in this “papyrus” without any discrimination. and
It is a crime to violate any of these rights.

2- There is no text in this “papyrus” that may be interpreted in a way that indicates that it implies the authorization of any of the state institutions or groups
Or individuals, any right to engage in any activity or any action aimed at violating any of the rights, freedoms and guarantees stipulated
them in this document.